See schematics at bottom of page ...
Water Treatment Systems used in beverage and food plants
range from simple filtration, often with chlorine/chloramine
removal, to sophisticated membrane technology with such as
reverse osmosis (RO) and even continuous electrodeionization
(CEDI) ... a safe approach when producing "Purified Bottled
The following schematics are typical water systems found in
different food and beverage plants.  If you have questions or
concerns with water treatment or water quality, or on
alternative approaches... contact us.
RO and Membrane Technology
Membranes technology is used in producing high quality "beverage" water.  This can be
reverse osmosis, nano-filtration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration.  The quality of the water coming
in to the plant, whether the source is from a surface supply or from a ground source, the needs
of the beverage being produced, and even regulatory requirements will dictate the technology
to use.   "Purified" bottled water normally requires R.O. and even continuous
electrodeionization, to meet the strict requirements of this product.  Key is the need to assure
that the membranes used are protected by suitable and reliable pre-treatment equipment.  Once
high quality water is produced ... keeping it of high quality, to the point of filling and marketing
the package, and through the shelf life period, becomes a most important operational task.
Three negative points:
1.  Carbon towers, installed before membranes that can not tolerate chlorine or chloramine (TFC) can usually be
 replaced by a feed of metabisulfite if desired.  In such cases, a carbon tower will still be recommended for
 installation, after the membrane or storage, to assure removal of small molecule organics.   In this case you can
 expect an extended life for the carbon bed.
2.  Where TFC membranes are in use and the pre-treatment does not include a form of microbial control, then a UV
 unit should be installed prior to the membrane (before the cartridge filter).
Lime Based Coagulation
Lime based coagulation systems are durable, dependable and easy to
control.   They have three major drawbacks ...
all of which can be corrected:
1.   This technology can generate Trihalomethanes (THM) if organic
  precursors are present (surface waters).  This is attributable to the
  high pH and high levels of chlorine which makes such systems so
  effective and so stable.
2.   Lime based coagulation systems used in the beverage industry
  produce a significant amount of sludge (coagulant and
  precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide).
3.   The technology, unsupported, does not address removal of
  sodium, chloride, sulfate and nitrate.  For almost all water
  supplies, this alone makes beverage type coagulation technology
  unacceptable for producing "Purified" bottled water.
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Water Technology
Water Reclamation
Schematics of Membrane
Systems & Configurattions
(Under Contruction)
Schematics of Pretreatment
Options for Membrane
(Under Contruction)
Schematics and detail on
Beverage Type Coagulation
Water Treatment Systems
(lime based)
To Address:
(Under Contruction)
The "Micro" Corner
Bad Guys,
Micro Issues,
Arsenic, Bromate, Chlorite ...
Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics,
New Chemistry ...
World Wide Water Standards
"Purified" Bottled Water
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